Bibliography Part 4: Upper Cretaceous – Chalk

Bibliography of Sussex Local Geological Sites » Upper Cretaceous – Chalk

The references cited below for this Part 4 of the bibliography for LGS sites in Sussex range from early 19th Century (e.g. Mantell 1822) to the latest publications in 2012. Over that period of time the terminology for the stratigraphy (litho-, bio- and chronostratigraphy) of formations within our area has continually evolved. It is necessary, therefore, to refer to the latest publications, particularly those of the Cretaceous Subcommission on Stratigraphy (Birkelund et al, 1984; Rawson et al, 1996) for the terms to use when describing the bio- and chronostratigraphy of the LGS sites (e.g. Aptian, Albian, Cenomanian, Turonian to Campanian etc).

Fossils collected over the 200 years of research from Sussex quarries and pits (e.g. Mantell 1822, 1827; Dixon 1850) have contributed to the internationaly agreed divisions of the Cretaceous and many type species of fossils were obtained from Sussex pits and illustrated in these early publications. Fossil names have, however, also changed as synonymy has been sorted out by palaeontologists. Hence the traditional names used for zones of the Chalk do not always apply now e.g. the name for the fossil bivalve Inoceramus labiatus is no longer used as it is a bucket term for an interval containing many inoceramid species no longer even refrred to the genus Inoceramus. These are mytiloid bivalves and the once single zone of I. labiatus is now divided into several mytiloid units with Mytiloides columbianus and M. hattini at the base and Mytiloides labiatus towards the top (all within the Holywell Nodular Chalk Formation). Some fossil names have remained the same for 200 years (e.g. the free-swimming fossil crinoids Uintacrinus socialis and Marsupites testudinarius which occur globally from Australia to the Western Interior of North America and some echinoid generic names have lasted the test of time such as Micraster).

The publications containing the latest information on the fossils include the journal Palaeontology and the monographs produced by the Palaeontographical Society on the different groups of fossils. The journals Cretaceous Geology and Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association also contain many papers relevant to our area. These latter two jounals are now published by Elsevier and have complete access on-line back to the earliest issues. The Geological Conservation Review (GCR) volumes commissioned by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) contain the information vital for planning considerations at the SSSI/LGS sites. The GCR volume relevant to the Chalk of the South Downs is v. 23 British Upper Cretaceous Stratigraphy, 2001. Systematic palaeontology of fossils requires international study. Hence many of the references given below relate to European, North American and Japanese studies vital for identification of species and understanding of their evolutionary palaeobiology. For example, the ammonite zonal scheme for the Upper Cretaceous rocks of Sussex is largely based in southern England and France in the Cenomanian but is increasingly North American above the Cenomanian as ammonites are rare or absent in England. In the North American successions the ammonites are associated with inoceramid bivalves that also occur in Europe. So the inoceramids are proxies for and are increasingly used to define the stages, substages and zones worldwide.

The UK Stratigraphic Commission, combining the Geological Society of London Stratigraphy Committee and the British Geological Survey Stratigraphic Committee, are responsible for ratifying the lithostratigraphy to be used for geological mapping in the UK (the formations) and the member and bed subdivisions of the rocks. The traditional divisions of the Cretaceous Rocks of Britian were summarised in a three volume British Geological Survey memoir (Juke’s-Browne and Hill, 1903-04). This memoir recorded the inland geology, listing fossils from the various pits by traditional zone. Rowe (1900), investigated the ‘Zones’ of the Chalk on the coastal cliffs. It is only recently that work has been undertaken to update this landmark BGS memoir and Rowe’s work published in the Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association. Many of the new lithostratigraphical names for Cretaceous rocks are based on exposures of the rock units in quarries and sea-cliffs of Sussex (e.g. the formations and beds of the Chalk which have been subsequently mapped throughout southern England).

With respect to the chalk pits in the South Downs the work of two great amateur geologists must also be emphasised. Brydone with his mentor at Winchester College, Griffith, published a geological map of the Zones of the Chalk of Hampshire which included a list of all chalk pits (Griffith and Brydone, 1911; Brydone, 1912). With each numbered pit Brydone listed the fossils he found there. Gaster, between 1924 and 1951, carried out similar work in the Sussex South Downs, producing zonal maps for each area and listing the fossils he obtained from each pit and local scraping. Like Brydone before him, Gaster numbered each pit. These pit numbers are at present not recorded on the Sussex LGS database and this would be useful additional information for future researchers when cross-referencing sites. Although the names for many of the zones shown on the Brydone and Gaster maps are not used today they can be correlated with the new stratigraphies via the stratigraphical columns attached to this bibliography.

The range of publications included in this bibliography show that LGS sites notified in the Sussex LGS database have great historical importance as well as being locations where new concepts in stratigraphy, palaeontology and the geological history of the rocks are observed and tested. One aspect not included in the information for each site is geodiversity. Geodiversity includes the diverse range of fossils found at each site as well as the range of rocks, the differences in their origins (geological history) and the landscape they represent. With regard to this last point how the biodiversity of a site relates to underlying geology and geodiversity could also be developed as part of the information provided for each LGS site.

Bibliography Part 4: Chalk

Allen, P. (1975) Wealden of the Weald: a new model. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 86, 389-437.

Allen, P. (1981) Pursuit of Wealden models. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 138, 375-406.

These two papers set the scene for a new model of Wealden of the Weald from a lake, swamp environment to a braid-plain environment for the clastic (sandstone) formations. Key quarries and coastal cliffs in the Weald used to build this sedimentary model are identified. The papers also show that there is a tectonic line beneath the South Downs, reactivated in pulses during the Early Cretaceous. An important tectonic line in relation to the Chalk. This work is reviewed and updated in the GCR volume now published as part of the Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association (Radley, J.D. 2012. The non-marine Lower Cretaceous Wealden strata of southern England, 123, 233-385).

Anon (1862) Turtle Remains in the Upper Greensand. The Geologist, 5, 73-4.

Although primarily related to Cambridgeshire this paper illustrates the possible geodiversity in deposits that also occur in Sussex.

Bailey, H.W., Gale, A.S., Mortimore, R.N., Swiecicki, A.and Wood, C.J. (1983) The Coniacian - Maastrichtian Stages in the United Kingdom, with particular reference to southern England. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 12, 19-42.

Bailey, H.W., Gale, A.S., Mortimore, R.N., Swiecicki, A. and Wood, C.J. (1984) Biostratigraphical criteria for recognition of the Coniacian to Maastrichtian stage boundaries in the Chalk of north-west Europe, with particular reference to southern England. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, 33, 31-9.

These two papers provided a link between litho-marker beds, macrofossils and microfossils in the Chalk of southern England (specifically the Sussex Downs); subsequently updated by Hampton et al., 2003 and Mortimore, Wood and Gallois, 2001 (see below)

Barchi, P. (1995) Geochemie et magnetostratigraphie du campanien de l’Europe nord- ouest. Thèse de Doctorat de l’Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris IV).

PhD Thesis at Paris University supported by Bernard Pomerol and Rory Mortimore looked at geochemistry of the Chalk at Seaford Head (and elsewhere in the Anglo-Paris Basin) and identified the palaeo-magnetic reversal from the ‘long Cretaceous quiet zonw’ to a new phase of magnetic reversals beginning beneath the Old Nore Marl at Seaford Head, Newhaven and Portobello).

Barrois, C. (1876) Recherches sur le terrain Crétacé Supérieur de l’Angleterre et de l’Irlande. Memoire de la Société Géologique du Nord, 232 pp.

First descriptions of many Chalk pits in the South Downs (e.g. Caburn Pit, Ranscombe Lane, near Lewes)

Bedwell, F.A. (1874) The Isle of Thanet. The Ammonite Zone, the depth of the Chalk in section, and the continuity of its flint floorings. Geological Magazine, New Series, Decade 2, 1, 16-22.

Description of flint bands in the Isle of Thanet Chalk – gives his name to two marker flint bands used today in the Chalk (Bedwell’s Columnar Flint and the Bedwell Line e.g. Mortimore 1997).

Bengtson, P. (compiler) (1996) The Turonian Stage and substage boundaries Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 66-supp., pp. 69-79.

This 1996 volume contains the internationally agreed criteria (from the Cretaceous Stage and sub-stage working groups) used to define all the stage and some sub-stage boundaries of the Cretaceous (i.e. which fossils and in which geological sections the definitions are based). NB these stage and sub-stage concepts supercede the traditional ‘zones’ of, for example, the Chalk. Zones are no longer used except for comparison between former and new stratigraphies. This volume addes to the Birkelund et al 1984 paper cited below. The working groups continue to add to and modify the concepts.

Birkelund, T., Hancock, J.M., Hart, M.B., Rawson, P.F., Remane, J., Robaszynski, F., Schmid, F. and Surlyk, F. (1984) Cretaceous stage boundaries - Proposals. Bulletin of the geological Society of Denmark, 33, 3-20.

This summary paper from the Cretaceous Subcommission Working Groups of the International Union of Geological Societies (IUGS) Stratigraphic Commission removed the Senonian as a stage concept and ratified the use of the Coquand (1856-1858) stages of Coniacian, Santonian and Campanian. The subcommission also made recommendations that national working groups should follow and the results were subsequently presented at the Brussels Stage Boundary Symposium at Brussels (Rawson et al., Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 66-supp, 1996).

Black, M. (1953) The constitution of the Chalk. Proceedings of the Geological Society, London, 1499, 81-6.

Following many years of the early 20th Century when the chalk was considered to be an inorganic limestone (an idea which ignored the earlier work of Sorby (1861, see below, Ehrenberg, Huxley, 1868 and others in the 19th Century), Black used one of the first transmission electron microscopes (at Cambridge), to prove that the Chalk was entirely organic, made of coccoliths and other calcareous nannoplankton (thus reinstating Sorby, Huxley and others observations and conclusions). In recognition of this early 19th Century work the coccolith species that forms modern chalks in the world’s oceans today is named Emiliania huxleyi. Also see Hancock, J.M. (1980) The significance of Maurice Black’s work on the Chalk. In Andros Island, Chalk and Oceanic Oozes (eds C.V. Jeans and P.F. Rawson), Yorkshire Geological Society Occasional Publication No.5, pp. 86-100.

Blackmore, H.B. (1896) Some Notes on the aptychi from the Upper Chalk. Geological Magazine, New Series, Decade 4, 3, 529-83.

The aptychi of ammonites are not well known from the Chalk. These records by Dr Blackmore from the Chalk around Salisbury are an example. Others have now been found in the Sussex South Downs but are not recorded in the literature.

Bone, D. and Bone, A. (2000) Lavant Stone: a late Roman and medieval building stone from the Chalk (Upper Cretaceous) of West Sussex. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 111, 193-203.

Vital description of the phosphatic chalks no longer visible at Stoke Clump near Lavant, now only found in the walls of buildings, particularly churches in West Sussex  

Bown, P.R. (ed) (1998) Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy, Chapman and Hall, London.

The ‘bible’ of calcareous nannoplankton used to identify the stratigraphy of nannoplankton-rich deposits such as the Gault and Chalk.

Bristow, C.R., Mortimore, R.N. and Wood, C.J. (1997) Lithostratigraphy for mapping the Chalk of southern England. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 108, 293-315.

The paper that summarises the concepts that led to recognition of new mapping units for the Chalk of southern England. Subsequently the UK Stratigraphic Commission ratified this stratigraphy and as a result the mapping units were raised from Member to Formation Status (Rawson et al. 1999) as had been suggested in Mortimore 1986.

Bristow, C.R., Mortimore, R.N. and Wood, C.J. (1999) Reply to discussion on “Lithostratigraphy for mapping the Chalk of southern England.” Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 110, 68-71.

British Museum (Natural History) British Mesozoic Fossils, Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London.

An excellent introduction to the range of fossils found in the Cretaceous rocks of Sussex and elsewhere. A more comprehensive illustration of the fossils is given in the NHMs more recent publications ‘The Fossils of the Chalk’ and the ‘Fossils of the Gault’

Bromley, R.G. (1965) Studies on the lithology and conditions of sedimentation of the Chalk Rock and comparable horizons. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of London.

A vital PhD thesis that for the first time established the ecology and processes going on in and on the Chalk sea-bed. Out of this study came an understanding of trace fossil assemblages in the Chalk and the funny shapes that flints have (see Bromley’s papers below). Such studies also helped Chris Clayton develop his biochemical model for the origin of flint (see Clayton, C.J. below).

Bromley, R.G. (1967) Some observations on burrows of thalassinidean Crustacea in chalk hardgrounds. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 123, 157-82.

For the first time the network of branching flints found in the White Chalk were related to crustacean burrow networks.

Bromley, R.G. (1975a) Trace fossils at omission surfaces. In The study of trace fossils (ed R. Frey), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 399-428.

A wonderful paper illustrating the complexity of trace fossil assemblages (part of the geodiversity) in the Chalk.

Bromley, R.G. (1975b) Hardground diagenesis. In Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences, VI. the Encyclopedia of Sedimentology (eds R.W. Fairbridge and J. Bourgeois), Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, pp. 397-400.

For those wanting to know what a hardground is!

Bromley, R. G. (1990) Trace fossils: Biology and taphonomy, Unwin Hyman, London.

Bromley, R.G. (1996) Trace Fossils, Biology, taphonomy and applications, 2nd edn, Chapman and Hall, London.

First and second editions of the life-time’s work on trace fossils, especially chalk trace fossils, by Richard Bromley.

Bromley, R.G. and Ekdale, A.A. (1984a) Trace fossil preservation in flint in the European Chalk. Journal of Paleontology, 58, 298-311.

Wonderful examples of how the many peculiar shapes of flint relate to trace fossils.

Bromley, R.G. and Ekdale, A.A. (1984b) Chondrites: A trace fossil indicator of anoxia in sediments. Science, 224, 872-4.

Bromley, R.G. and Ekdale, A.A. (1986) Flint and fabric in the European Chalk. In The scientific study of flint and chert (eds G. de G. Sieveking and M.B. Hart), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 71-82.

Wonderful examples of how the many peculiar shapes of flint relate to trace fossils.

Bromley, R.G. and Ekdale, A.A. (1987) Mass transport in European Cretaceous chalk; fabric criteria for its recognition. Sedimentology, 34, 1079-92.

Further wonderful examples of how the many peculiar shapes of flint relate to trace fossils.

Bromley, R.G. and Gale, A.S. (1982) The lithostratigraphy of the English Chalk Rock. Cretaceous Research, 3, 273-306.

Based on Richard Bromley’s PhD Thesis (1965, see above) the hardgrounds that form the Chalk Rock of the Chilterns and Berkshire Downs were described and correlated.

Bromley, R.G., Schulz, M.-G. and Peake, N.B. (1975) Paramoudras: giant flints, long burrows and early diagenesis of chalks. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Biologiske Skrifter, 20, 1-130.

Another wonderful paper describing the trace fossil that forms kernel of giant Paramoudra flints.

Brydone, R.M. (1912) The stratigraphy of the Chalk of Hants, Dulau and Co. Ltd., London.

Vital paper providing evidence of the diversity of fossils found in Chalk pits in Hampshire.

Brydone, R.M. (1914) The Zone of Offaster pilula in the south English Chalk. Parts I- IV. Geological Magazine, Decade 6, 1, 359-69, 405-11, 449-57, 509-13.

Brydone, R.M. (1915) The Marsupites Chalk of Brighton. Geological Magazine, Decade 6, 2, 12-5.

Brydone, R.M. (1939) The Chalk Zone of Offaster pilula, Dulau and Co. Ltd., London.

Brydone’s papers provide excellent descriptions of parts of the Chalk we now refer to as the Newhaven Chalk Formation with marl seams.

Burnaby, T.P. (1962) The palaeoecology of the Foraminifera of the Chalk Marl. Palaeontology, 4, 599-608.

Burnett, J.A. (1998) Chapter 6. Upper Cretaceous. In Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy (ed P.R. Bown), Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 132-99.

Christensen, W.K. (1974) Morphometric analysis of Actinocamax plenus from England. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, 23, 1-26.

Christensen, W.K. (1982) Late Turonian - Early Coniacian belemnites from western and central Europe. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, 31, 63-79.

Christensen, W.K. (1990) Actinocamax primus Arkhangelsky (Belemnitellidae; Upper Cretaceous). Biometry, comparison and biostratigraphy. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 64, 75-90.

Christensen, W.K. (1991) Belemnites from the Coniacian to Lower Campanian chalks of Norfolk and southern England. Palaeontology, 34, 695-747.

Christensen, W.K. (1992) Belemnocamax boweri Crick, an unusual belemnite from the Cenomanian of northwest Germany and eastern England. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, 40, 157-66.

Christensen’s papers are essential for identification of the belemnites from the Upper Cretaceous Chalk of Sussex and show how incomplete the UK successions are compared to those in the Boreal Sea on the Russian Platform.

Clayton, C.J. (1986) The chemical environment of flint formation in Upper Cretaceous chalks. In The Scientific Study of Flint and Chert (eds G. de G. Sieveking and M. B. Hart), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 43-54.

The most important paper on the orgin of flint. For the first time a biochemical model is provided for the processes forming flint.

Conybeare, W.D. and Phillips, W. (1822) Outlines of the Geology of England and Wales. Phillips, London.

Coquand, H. (1856) Notice sur la formation crétacée du département de la Charantes. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 2, 55-98.

Coquand, H. (1857) Position des Ostrea columba et biauriculata dans le groupe de la craie inférieure. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 2, 745-66.

Coquand, H. (1858) Description physique, géologique, paléontologique et minéralogique de Départment de la Charante I. Besançon.

Coquand’s publications defined the stages between the Turonian and Maastrichtian (i.e. the Coniacian, Santonian and Campanian) now used for the Upper Cretaceous Series. These were defined in the rocks around Saintes, to the north of Bordeaux in the Aquitaine Basin.

Croll, J. (1875) Climate and time in their geological relations: a theory of secular change in the earth’s climate, Daldy and Isbister, London.

The original publication on the controls on the earth’s climate now called Milankovitch cycles but should be called Croll cycles.

Cuvier, MM. G. and Brongniart, A. (1822) Description géologique des environs de Paris, Paris.

Like Mantell (1822), this publication illustrated many of the fossils we are familiar with from the South Downs etc.

Curry, D. and Smith, A.J. (1975) The structure and geological evolution of the English Channel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A 279, 3-20.

Davidson, T. (1852 – 1854). A monograph of British Cretaceous Brachiopoda. 2. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London, 117 pp.

Davidson, T. (1874). A monograph of the fossil Brachiopoda. 4(1) Supplement to the Recent, Tertiary and Cretaceous species. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London, 72 pp.

d’Halloy, d’O., J.-J. (1822) Observations sur un essai de carte géologique de la France, des Pays-Bas, et des contrées voisines. Annales des Mines, 7, 353-76.

The publication that defines the Cretaceous  

d’Orbigny, A. (1847) Paléontologie française. Terrains Crétacés IV. Brachiopodes. Victor Masson, Paris.

d’Orbigny, A. (1850) Prodrome de Paléontologie Stratigraphique Universelle des Animaux Mollusques & rayonnés faisant suite au Cours Elémentaire de Paléontologie et de Géologie Stratigraphiques. Volume 2, Victor Masson, Paris.

d’Orbigny, A. (1852) Cours Elémentaire de Paléontologie et de Géologie Stratigraphiques. Volume 2, Victor Masson, Paris, pp.383-847.

DeConto, R.M., Hay, W.W. and Bergengren, J.C. (1998) Modeling late Cretaceous climate and vegetation. Zentralblatt für Geologie und Paläontologie. Teil 1, 1996 (11/12), 1433-44.

Dibley, G.E. (1906) Excursion to Lewes. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 19, 451-3

Ditchfield, P.W. and Marshall, J.D. (1989) Isotopic variation in rhythmically bedded chalks: Palaeotemperature variation in the Upper Cretaceous. Geology, 17, 842-5.

Dixon, F. (1850) The Geology and Fossils of the Tertiary and Cretaceous Formations of Sussex. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, London. (new edn 1878).

Drummond, P.V.O. (1967) The Cenomanian Palaeogeography of Dorset and Adjacent Counties. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.

Drummond, P.V.O. (1970) The Mid-Dorset Swell. Evidence of Albian - Cenomanian movements in Wessex. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 81, 679-714.

Drummond, P.V.O. (1983) The Micraster biostratigraphy of the Senonian White Chalk of Sussex, southern England. Geologie Mediterranéenne, X, 177-82.

Ekdale A.A. and Bromley, R.G. (1984) Comparative ichnology of shelf-sea and deep- sea chalk. Journal of Paleontology, 58, 322-32.

Ekdale A.A. and Mason, T.R. (1988) Characteristic trace-fossil associations in oxygen-poor sedimentary environments. Geology, 16, 720-3.  

Elder, W.P. (1991) Mytiloides hattini n. sp.: A guide fossil for the base of the Turonian in the Western Interior of North America. Journal of Paleontology, 65, 234-41.  

Elsden, J.V. (1909) On the Geology of the neighbourhood of Seaford (Sussex). Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 65, 442-61.

Ernst, G. (1963) Stratigraphische und gesteinschemische Untersuchungen im Santon und Campan von Lägerdorf (SW-Holstein). Mitteilungen aus dem Geologischen Staatsinstitut in Hamburg, 32, 71-127.

Ernst, G. (1964) Ontogenie, Phylogenie und Stratigraphie der Belemnitengattung Gonioteuthis Bayle aus dem nordwestdeutschen Santon/Campan. Fortschritte in der Geologie von Rheinland und Westfalen, 7, 487-94.

Ernst, G. (1966) Zur Belemniten-Stratigraphie des Santon und Campan im Münsterländer Becken. Zeitschrift der deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft, 115, 922.

Ernst, G. (1971) Biometrische Untersuchungen über die Ontogenie und Phylogenie der Offaster/Galeola-Stammesreihe (Echin.) aus der nordwesteuropäischen Oberkreide. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 139, 169-225.

Ernst, G. (1972) Grundfragen der Stammesgeschichte bei irregulären Echiniden der nordwesteuropäischen Oberkreide. Geologisches Jahrbuch, Reihe A, 4, 63- 175.

Ernst, G., Niebuhr, B., Wiese, F. and Wilmsen, M. (1996) Facies Development, Basin Dynamics, Event Correlation and Sedimentary Cycles in Upper Cretaceous of Selected Areas of Germany and Spain. In Global and Regional Controls on Biogenic Sedimentation. II. Cretaceous Sedimentation. Research Reports. (eds J. Reitner, F. Neuweiler and F. Gunkel). Göttinger Arbeiten in Geologie und Paläontologie, Sb3, 87-100.

Ernst, G. and Rehfeld, U. (1997) The transgressive development in the Lower and Middle Cenomanian of the Salzgitter area (N-Germany) recorded by sea level- controlled eco- and litho-events. Freiberger Forschungshefte, Reihe C, 468, 79-107.

Ernst, G., Schmid, F. and Seibertz, E. (1983) Event-Stratigraphie im Cenoman und Turon von NW-Deutschland. Zitteliana, 10, 531-54.

Ernst, G. and Schulz, M.-G. (1974) Stratigraphie und Fauna des Coniac und Santon im Schreibkreide-Richtprofil von Lägerdorf (Holstein). Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg, 43, 5-60.

Ernst, G. and Wood, C.J. (1998) C 2.4: Cenomanian - Turonian of Wunstorf. In Key localities of the northwest European Cretaceous (eds J. Mutterlose, A. Bornemann, S. Rauer, C. Spaeth and C.J. Wood), Bochumer Geologische und Geotechnische Arbeiten, 48, 62-73.

Ernst, G., Wood, C.J. and Rehfeld, U. (1998) C 2.10: Cenomanian - Turonian of Söhlde. In Key localities of the northwest European Cretaceous (eds J.Mutterlose, A. Bornemann, S. Rauer, C. Spaeth and C.J. Wood), Bochumer Geologische und Geotechnische Arbeiten, 48, 102-19.

Felder, P.J. (1981) Onderzoek van de meso-fossielen in de krijt-afzettingen van Limburg een nieuwe mogelijkheid tot het correleren en dateren van de krijt-afzettingen. Natuurhistorisch Maandblad, 70, 69-75.

This paper was the first application of Milankovitch cycles to the chalk of NW Europe.  

Fritsen, A., Bailey, H.W., Galagher, L., Hampton, H. et al. (2000) A joint Chalk Stratigraphic Framework. JCR Symposium, Brighton, 21 – 24 March 2000, 1- 2.

Gale, A.S. (1990a) A Milankovitch scale for Cenomanian time. Terra Nova, 1, 420-5.

Gale, A.S. (1995) Cyclostratigraphy and correlation of the Cenomanian Stage in Western Europe. In Orbital Forcing Timescales and Cyclostratigraphy (eds M.R House and A.S. Gale), Geological Society of London, Special Publication No. 85, pp. 177-97.

Gale, A.S. and Friedrich, S. (1989) Occurrence of the ammonite Sharpeiceras in the Lower Cenomanian Chalk Marl of Folkestone. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 100, 80-2.

Gale, A.S., Jenkyns, H.C., Kennedy, W.J. and Corfield, R.M. (1993) Chemostratigraphy versus biostratigraphy: data from around the Cenomanian - Turonian boundary. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 150, 29-32.

Gale, A.S. and Smith, A.B. (1982) The palaeobiology of the Cretaceous irregular echinoids Infulaster and Hagenowia. Palaeontology, 25, 11-42.

Gale, A.S., Smith, A.B., Monks, N.E.A., Young, J.R., Howard, A., Wray, D.S. and Huggett, J.M. (2000) Marine biodiversity through the Late Cenomanian – Early Turonian: palaeoceanographic controls and sequence stratigraphic biases. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 157, 745-57.

Gale, A.S., Wood, C.J. and Bromley, R.G. (1988) The Lithostratigraphy and Marker Bed Correlation of the White Chalk (Late Cenomanian - Campanian) in Southern England. Mesozoic Research, 1, 107-18.

Gale, A.S. and Woodroof, P.B. (1981) A Coniacian ammonite from the ‘Top Rock’ in the Chalk of Kent. Geological Magazine, 118, 557-60.

Gale, A.S., Young, J.R., Shackleton, N.J., Crowhurst, S.J. and Wray, D.S. (1999) Orbital tuning of Cenomanian marly chalk successions: towards a Milankovitch time-scale for the Late Cretaceous. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series A, 357, 1815-29.

Gallois, R.W. and Morter, A.A. (1976) The Trunch Borehole. Report of the Institute of Geological Sciences, 76/10, pp. 8-10.

The Trunch Borehole in North Norfolk is a vital link to the highest chalks in England (the Campanian – Maastrichtian belemnite zones which includes the Culver and Portsdown Chalk formations).

The Gaster series of papers contain the enumerated chalk pits in the South Downs of Sussex

Gaster, C.T.A. (1920) An undescribed species of Trochiliopora. Geological Magazine, 57, 526.

Gaster, C.T.A. (1924) The Chalk of the Worthing District of Sussex. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 35, 89-110.

Gaster, C.T.A. (1928) Excursion to Newhaven and Brighton. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 39, 198-201.

Gaster, C.T.A. (1929) Chalk Zones in the neighbourhood of Shoreham, Brighton and Newhaven, Sussex. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 39, 328-40.

Gaster, C.T.A. (1941) The Chalk Zones of Offaster pilula and Actinocamax quadratus. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 52, 210-15.

Gaster, C.T.A. (1951) The stratigraphy of the Chalk of Sussex. Part IV. East Central Area - between the valley of the Adur and Seaford. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association., 62, 31-64.

 

Gilbert, G.K. (1895) Sedimentary measurement of geological time. Journal of Geology, 3, 121-5.

Recognition of cyclic sedimentation and possible climatic controls subsequently used by others to link some sedeimentary processes to Milankovitch cycles.

Gradstein, F.M., Agterberg, F.P., Ogg, J.G., Hardenbol, J. and Backstrom, S. (1999) On the Cretaceous time scale. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 212, 3-14.

The team who regularly update the Cretaceous time scale.

Griffith, C. and Brydone, R.M. (1911) The Zones of the Chalk in Hants, Dulau and Co. Ltd., London.

Vital paper providing evidence of the diversity of fossils found in Chalk pits in Hampshire.

Hampton, M.J., Bailey, H.W., Gallagher, L.T., Mortimore, R.N. and Wood, C.J. (2007). The biostratigraphy of Seaford Head, Sussex, Southern England; an international reference section for the basal boundaries for the Santonian and Campanian Stages in chalk facies. Cretaceous Research, 28, 46-60.

Hampton, M.J., Bailey, H.W., Jones, A.D. (2010). A Holostratigraphic approach to the Chalk of the North Sea Eldfisk Field, Norway. In: Vining, B., Pickering, S., (Eds.), Petroleum Geology: From Mature Basins to New Frontiers. Proceedings of the 7th Petroleum Geology Conference. Geological Society, London

Hancock, J.M. (1959) Les Ammonites du Cénomanien de la Sarthe. Comptes Rendus du Congrès des Sociétés savantes, Dijon, 1959. Colloque sur le Crétacé supérieur français, pp. 249-59.

The paper that started the revision of the ‘traditional’ Chalk zones in the Cenomanian Grey Chalk Subgroup by introducing to the UK the French ammonite divisions from the type area for the Cenomanian around Sarthe.

Hancock, J.M. (1975a) The Petrology of the Chalk. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 86, 499-535.

An excellent summary of knowledge about the Chalk up to that time (1975).

Hancock, J.M. (1975b) The sequence of facies in the Upper Cretaceous of northern Europe compared with that in the Western Interior. In The Cretaceous System In the Western Interior of North America (ed W.G. E. Caldwell), The Geological Association of Canada Special Paper No. 13, pp. 83-118.

Hancock, J.M. (1989) Sea level changes in the British region during the Late Cretaceous. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 100, 565-94.

Hancock, J.M. (2000). Late Cretaceous Eustatic Highs. Memoir geological Society of India, No.46, 1-14

Hancock, J.M. and Gale, A.S. (1996) The Campanian Stage. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 66-supp., pp. 103-9.

Hancock, J.M and Kauffman, E.G. (1979) Sea-level changes in the British region during the Late Cretaceous. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 136, 175-86.

Haq, B.U., Hardenbol, J. and Vail, P.R. (1987) Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic (250 million years ago to present). Science, 235 (4793), 1156- 67.

Haq, B.U., Hardenbol, J. and Vail, P.R. (1988) Mesozoic and Cenozoic chronostratigraphy and cycles of sea-level change. SEPM Special Publication, 42, 71-108.

These Hancock and Haq et al papers illustrate the conflicts in opinion on the timing and extent of sea-level rises and fluctuations affecting the rocks of Sussex.

Harries, P.J., Kauffman, E.G. and Crampton, J.S. (1996) Lower Turonian

Euramerican Inoceramidae: a mophologic, taxonomic, and biostratigraphic overview. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg, 77, 641-71.

A review of the inoceramid bivalves found in the Holywell Nodular Chalk Formation.

Hart, M.B. (1982) Turonian foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Southern England. Mémoires du Museum national d’Histoire Naturelle. Nouvel Series, 49, 203-7.

Hart, M.B. (1993) Labyrinthidoma Adams, Knight & Hodgkinson; an unusually large foraminiferal genus from the Chalk facies (Upper Cretaceous) of southern England and northern France. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Agglutinated Foraminifera, Krakow, Poland, September 12-19, 1993.(eds M.A.Kaminski, S. Geroch and M.A. Gasinski). Grzybowski Foundation Special Publication No. 3, pp. 123-30.

Hart, M.B., Bailey, H.W., Crittenden, S., Fletcher, B.N., Price, R.J. and Swiecicki, A. (1989) Chapter 7. Cretaceous. In Stratigraphical Atlas of Fossil Foraminifera, 2nd edn, (eds D.G. Jenkins and J.W. Murray), Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, for the British Micropalaeontological Society, pp. 273-371.

The Hart papers provide the key modern studies of Cretaceous microfossils.

Hattin, D.E. (1971) Widespread, synchronously deposited burrow-mottled limestone beds in Greenhorn Limestone (Upper Cretaceous) of Kansas and South Eastern Colorado. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 55, 412-31.

Hattin gives his name to the inoceramid fossil Mytiloides hattini in the lower part of the Holywell Noidular Chalk Formation.

Hawkins, H.L. (1931) The Significance of the Chalk. Union of Southeast Scientific Societies. pp. 29-43.

Hawkins, H.L. (1942) Some episodes in the geological history of the south of England. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 98, xlix- lxx.

Hays, J.D. and Pitman, W.C. III. (1973) Lithospheric plate motions, sea-level changes and climatic and ecological consequences. Nature, London, 246, 18-22.

Hébert E. (1874) Comparison de la craie des côte d’Angeleterre avec celle de la France. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 3rd series, 2, 416-28.

Hébert E. (1875) Classification du terrain crétac é supérieur. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, 3rd series, 3, 595-9.

Heinz, R. (1932) Aus der neuen Systematik der Inoceramen (Inoceramen XIV). Mitteilungen aus dem mineralogisch-geologischen Staatsinstitut in Hamburg, 13, 1-26.

Another key inoceramid paper

Hibsch C., Cartwright J., Hansen D.M., Gaviglio P., André, G., Cushing M., Bracq P., Juignet, P., Benoit P., Allouc J., 2003. Normal faulting in chalk: tectonic stresses vs. compaction-related polygonal faulting, In: van Rensbergen P., Hillis R., Maltman A.J., Morley C.K. (Eds.), Subsurface sediment mobilization, Geological Society Special Publications. 216, 291-308.

Hill, W. (1886) On the beds between the Upper and Lower Chalk of Dover, and their comparison with the Middle Chalk of Cambridgeshire. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 42, 232-48.

Hill, W. and Jukes-Browne, A.J. (1886) The Melbourn Rock and the zone of Belemnitella plena from Cambridge to the Chiltern Hills. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 42, 216-31.

Hillis R.R., Holford S.P., Green P.F., Doré A.G., Gatliff R.W., Stoker M.S., Thomson K., Turner J.P., Underhill J.R., Williams G.A., 2008, Cenozoic exhumation of the southern British Isles. Geology, 36, 371-374.

Hopson, P.M. 2005. A stratigraphical framework for the Upper Cretaceous Chalk of England and Scotland with statements on the Chalk of Northern Ireland and the UK Offshore sector. British Geological Survey Research Report, RR/05/01.

Huxley, T. H. (1868) On a piece of chalk. Presidential address to the British Association at Norwich.  

Jarvis, I. (1980a) The initiation of phosphatic chalk sedimentation - the Senonian (Cretaceous of the Anglo-Paris Basin). The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication No. 29, 167-92.

Jarvis, I. (1980b) Palaeobiology of Upper Cretaceous belemnites from the phosphatic chalk of the Anglo-Paris basin. Palaeontology, 23, 889-914.

Jarvis, I. (1980c) Genesis and diagenesis of Santonian to early Campanian (Cretaceous) phosphatic chalks of the Anglo-Paris Basin. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Oxford.

Jarvis, I. (1992) Sedimentology, geochemistry and origin of phosphatic chalks: the Upper Cretaceous deposits of NW Europe. Sedimentology, 39, 55-97.

Jarvis, I., Carson, G.A., Hart, M.B., Leary, P.N. and Tocher, B.A. (1988a) The Cenomanian - Turonian (late Cretaceous) anoxic event in SW England: evidence from Hooken Cliffs near Beer, SE Devon. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 18, 147-64.

Jarvis, I., Carson, G.A., Cooper, M.K.E., Hart, M.B., Leary, P.N., Tocher, B.A., Horne, D. and Rosenfeld, A. (1988b) Microfossil Assemblages and the Cenomanian - Turonian (late Cretaceous) Oceanic Anoxic Event. Cretaceous Research, 9, 3-103.

Jarvis, I. and Tocher, B.A. (1987) Field Meeting: the Cretaceous of SE Devon, 14-16 March, 1986. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 98, 51-66.

Jarvis, I. and Woodroof, P.B. (1981) The phosphatic chalks and hardgrounds of Boxford and Winterbourne, Berkshire - two tectonically controlled facies in the late Coniacian to early Campanian (Cretaceous) of southern England. Geological Magazine, 118, 175-87.

Jarvis, I and Woodroof, P.B (1984) Stratigraphy of the Cenomanian and basal Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) betweeen Branscombe and and Seaton, SE Devon, England. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 95, 193-215.

Jarvis, I., Gale. A.S., Jenkyns, H.C., Pearce, M.A. (2006). Secular variation in Late Cretaceous carbon isotopes; a new δ13C carbonate reference curve for the Cenomanian-Campanian (99.6-70.6 Ma). Geological Magazine, 143, 561- 608.

Jeans, C.V. (1968) The origin of the montmorillonite of the European Chalk with special reference to the Lower Chalk of England. Clay Minerals, 7, 311-29.

Jeans, C.V. (1980) Early submarine lithification in the Red Chalk and Lower Chalk of eastern England: a bacterial control model and its implications. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 43, 81-157.

The geochemical model proposed for ‘hardening’ of the Chalk by Chris Jeans is very similar to the biochemical model of flint formation proposed by Chris Clayton (1986, above)

Jeans, C.V., Long, D., Hall, M.A., Bland, D.J. and Cornford, C. (1991) The geochemistry of the Plenus Marls at Dover, England: evidence of fluctuating oceanographic conditions and glacial control during the development of the Cenomanian - Turonian d13C anomaly. Geological Magazine, 128, 603-32.

Part of building the case for LGS sites and SSSIs is the scientific value to future studies. Papers such as these by Jarvis et al. and Jeans raise ideas that subsequently take many years of further research to resolve, requiring revisiting and measuring/sampling the sxections.

Jefferies, R.P.S. (1962) The palaeoecology of the Actinocamax plenus Subzone (lowest Turonian) in the Anglo-Paris Basin. Palaeontology, 4, 609-47.

Jefferies, R.P.S. (1963).The stratigraphy of the Actinocamax plenus Subzone (Turonian) in the Anglo-Paris Basin. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 74, 1-33.

Jenkyns, H.C. (1980) Cretaceous anoxic events: from continents to oceans. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 137, 171-88.

Jenkyns, H.C, Gale, A.S. and Corfield, R.M (1994) Carbon- and oxygen-isotope stratigraphy of the English Chalk and Italian Scaglia and its palaeoclimatic significance. Geological Magazine, 131, 1-34.

Jordan, R.W., Kleijne, A., Heimdal, B.R. and Green, J.C. (1995) A glossary of the extant Haptophyta of the world. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 75, 769-814.

The calcareous nannoplankton that make modern chalk.

Jukes-Browne, A.J. and Hill, W. (1903) The Lower and Middle Chalk of England. Memoir of the Geological Survey of the United. Kingdom, HMSO, London.

Jukes-Browne, A.J. and Hill, W. (1904) The Upper Chalk of England. Memoir of the Geological Survey of the United. Kingdom, HMSO, London

Jukes-Browne, A.J. and Hill, W. (1903-1904) wrote the first of the major British Geological Survey Memoirs on the rocks of the British Isles, in this case the Chalk of England.

Kaplan, U. and Kennedy, W.J. (1996) Upper Turonian and Coniacian ammonite stratigraphy of Westphalia, NW-Germany. Acta Geologica Polonica, 46, 305-52.

Kaplan, U., Kennedy, W.J., Lehmann, J. and Marcinowski, R. (1998) Stratigraphie und Ammonitenfaunen des westfälischen Cenoman. Geologie und Paläontologie in Westfalen, 51, 236 pp.

Kaplan, U., Kennedy, W.J. and Wright, C.W. (1987) Turonian and Coniacian Scaphitidae from England and Northwestern Germany. Geologisches Jahrbuch, Reihe A, 103, 5-39.

Kauffman, E.G. (1976) British middle Cretaceous biostratigraphy. In Evènements de la Partie Moyenne du Crétacé (Mid-Cretaceous Events) (eds G. Thomel and R. Reyment), Annales du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle de Nice, 4, XVII.1- XVII.6.

Kauffman, E.G. (1988) The case of the missing community:Low-oxygen adapted Palaeozoic and Mesozoic bivalves (“flat-clams”) and bacterial symbioses in typical Phanerozoic oceans. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, 20, A48.

Kauffman, E.G. and Harries, P. J (1992) The ecology and life habits of Cenomanian – Turonian Inoceramidae in North America. Workshop on Early Turonian Inoceramids, 5 – 6 October 1992 (Abstract).

Kauffman, E.G., Kennedy, W.J. and Wood, C.J. (1996) The Coniacian stage and substage boundaries. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 66-supp., pp. 81-94.

Kelly, S.R. (in press) Marine Lower Cretaceous of the British Isles. GCR Series No. xx, Joint Nature Conservancy Committee, Peterborough.

Kennedy, W.J. (1967) Burrows and surface traces from the Lower Chalk of southern England. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Geology), 15, 125- 67.

Kennedy, W.J. (1969) The correlation of the Lower Chalk of south-east England. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 80, 459-551.

Kennedy, W.J. (1971) Cenomanian ammonites from southern England. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 8, 133 pp., 64 plates.

Kennedy, W.J. and Garrison, R.E. (1975) Morphology and genesis of nodular chalks and hardgrounds in the Upper Cretaceous of southern England. Sedimentology, 22, 311-86.

Kennedy, W.J. and Kaplan, U. (1995a) Pseudojacobites farmeryi (Crick, 1905), ein seltener Ammonit des westfälischen und englischen Ober-Turon. Berliner geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Reihe E, 16(1), 25-43.

Kennedy, W.J. and Kaplan, U. (1995b) Parapuzosia (Parapuzosia) seppenradensis (Landois) und die Ammonitenfauna der Dülmener Schichten, unteres Unter- Campan, Westfalen. Geologie und Paläontologie in Westfalen, 33,127 pp.

Kennedy, W.J and Klinger, H.C. (1972) A Texanites - Spinaptychus association from the Upper Cretaceous of Zululand. Palaeontology, 15, 394-9.

Kermack, K. A. (1954) A biometrical study of Micraster coranguinum and M. (Isomicraster) senonensis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 649, 375-428.

Lake, R.D. (1975) The structure of the Weald - a review. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 86, 549-58.

Lake, R.D., Young, B., Wood, C.J. and Mortimore, R.N. (1987) Geology of the Country around Lewes. Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Sheet 319 (England and Wales), HMSO, London.

Lamolda, M.A., Gorostidi, A. and Paul, C.R.C. (1994) Quantitative estimates of calcareous nannofossil changes across the Plenus Marls (latest Cenomanian), Dover, England: implications for the generation of the Cenomanian - Turonian Boundary Event. Cretaceous Research, 15, 143-64.

Lamont-Black, J., and Mortimore, R. N. (2000) Dissolution tubules: A new karst structure from the English Chalk. Zeitschrift der Geomorphologie, 44, 469-489

First description of a karst structure common in the Chalk landscape of the South Downs.

Lyell, C. (1833). Principles of Geology, John Murray, London.

Lyell, C. (1852). A manual of elementary geology (4th edn), John Murray, London.

McArthur, J.M., Kennedy, W.J., Gale, A.S., Thirlwall, M.F., Chen, M., Burnett, J. and Hancock, J.M. (1992) Strontium isotope stratigraphy in the Late Cretaceous: intercontinental correlation of the Campanian/Maastrichtian boundary. In Global Change Special Issue (ed F.C. Wezel), Terra Nova, 4, 385-93.

Mantell, G.A. (1818) A sketch of the geological structure of the south-eastern part of

Sussex. Provincial Magazine, Lewes.

Mantell, G.A. (1822) The Fossils of the South Downs or Illustrations of the Geology of Sussex, Lepton Relfe, London.

Mantell, G.A. (1827) Illustrations of the Geology of Sussex, Lepton Relfe, London.

Matsumoto, T. and Noda, M. (1986) Some inoceramids (Bivalvia) from the Cenomanian (Cretaceous) of Japan. 1. New or little known four species from Hokkaido and Kyushu. Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan, N.S., 71, 317-27.

Milankovitch, M. (1941) Kanton der Erdbestrahlung und seine Anwendung auf das Eiszeitenproblem, Serbian Academy of Sciences, Belgrade.

Moghadam, H.V. and Paul, C.R.C. (2000) Micropalaeontology of the Cenomanian at Chinnor, Oxfordshire, and comparison with the Dover - Folkestone succession. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 111, 17-39.

Morter A.A. and Wood, C.J. (1983) The biostratigraphy of Upper Albian - Lower Cenomanian Aucellina in Europe. Zitteliana, 10, 515-29.

Mortimore, R.N. (1977) A reinterpretation of the Chalk of Sussex. Field Meeting for the Geologists’ Association on a revision of the stratigraphy and new aspects of the sedimentology 14-15 May, 1977: Handout.

Mortimore, R.N. (1979) The relationship of stratigraphy and tectonofacies to the physical properties of the White Chalk of Sussex. Unpublished CNAA PhD thesis, Brighton Polytechnic.

Mortimore, R.N. (1983). The stratigraphy and sedimentation of the Turonian - Campanian in the Southern Province of England. Zitteliana, 10, 27-41.

Mortimore, R.N. (1986a) Stratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous White Chalk of Sussex. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 97, 97-139.

Delayed from publication in 1983 this paper provided the first systematic study of the White Chalk stratigraphy that met the requirements of the International Stratigraphic Commission with respect to stratotypes and plotting the ranges of macrofossils in relation to lithostratigraphy.

Mortimore, R.N. (1986b) Controls on Upper Cretaceous sedimentation in the South Downs with particular reference to flint distribution. In The scientific study of flint and chert (eds G. de G. Sieveking and M.B. Hart), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 21-42.

Mortimore, R.N. (1987) Upper Cretaceous White Chalk in the North and South Downs, England: a correlation. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 98, 77-86.

Mortimore, R.N. (1990) Chalk or chalk. In Chalk (eds J.B. Burland, R.N. Mortimore, L.D. Roberts, D.L. Jones and B.O. Corbett), Thomas Telford, London, pp. 15- 46.

Mortimore, R.N. (1997) The Chalk of Sussex and Kent. Geologists’ Association Guide No. 57, The Geologists’ Association.

Field guide to many of the Sussex LGS sites  

Mortimore, R.N. (2001). Chalk: a stratigraphy for all reasons. Geoscience in South West England, 10, 105-122

Mortimore, R.N. (2011). A chalk revolution: what have we done to the Chalk of England? Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 122, 232-297

Summary of formation of the Chalk in the South Downs. Mortimore, R.N. (2012). Geoconservation and the advancement of geosciences: Lessons from the Chalk of England. Proc. Geol. Assoc. (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pgeola.2012.07.006

LGS/SSI sites in Sussex used to develop geosciences.

Mortimore, R.N. (2012). Making sense of Chalk: a total-rock approach to its Engineering Geology. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 45, 252-334

Examples of using Sussex Downs LGS sites in construction projects.

Mortimore, R.N. and Pomerol, B. (1987) Correlation of the Upper Cretaceous White Chalk (Turonian to Campanian) in the Anglo-Paris Basin. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 98, 97-143.

The first correlation of the detailed lithostratigraophy of the Chalk across the entire Anglo-Paris Basin showing that key marker beds were present over the whole basin.

Mortimore, R.N. and Pomerol, B. (1990) Les silex du Turonien: niveaux repères et corrélation de part et d’autre de la Manche. In: Le Silex de sa genèse a l’outil. Proceedings of the 5th International Flint Symposium, Cahiers de Quaternaire, 17, 85-94.

Mortimore, R.N. and Pomerol, B. (1991a) Upper Cretaceous tectonic disruptions in a placid Chalk sequence in the Anglo-Paris Basin. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 148, 391-404

Mortimore, R.N. and Pomerol, B. (1991b) Stratigraphy and Eustatic Implications of Trace Fossil Events in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk of Northern Europe. Palaios, 6, 216-31.

Identification of the major trace fossil events widely correlateable across NW Europe.

Mortimore, R.N. and Pomerol, B. (1996) A revision of Turonian litho- and biostratigraphy in the Anglo-Paris Basin. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg. 77, 423-41.

Divided the Ranscombe Chalk Member into two; the Holywell Nodular Chalk below and the New Pit Chalk above. These became the Holywell and New Pit Chalk formations.

Mortimore, R.N. and Pomerol, B. (1997) Upper Cretaceous tectonic phases and end Cretaceous inversion in the Chalk of the Anglo-Paris Basin. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 108, 231-55.

The first link between onshore and offshore ‘Subhercynian’ tectonic episodes.

Mortimore, R.N. and Pomerol, B. (1998) Basin analysis in engineering geology: Chalk of the Anglo-Paris basin. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment (eds D. Moore and G. Hung), Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 3249-68.

Mortimore, R.N., Pomerol, B. and Foord, R.J. (1990) Engineering stratigraphy and palaeogeography for the Chalk of the Anglo-Paris Basin. In Chalk (eds J.B. Burland, R.N. Mortimore, L.D. Roberts, D.L. Jones and B.O. Corbett), Thomas Telford, London, pp. 47-62.

Mortimore, R.N., Pomerol, B. and J. Lamont-Black. (1996) Chapter 28. Examples of structural and sedimentological controls on chalk engineering behaviour. In. Engineering Geology of the Channel Tunnel. (eds C.S. Harris, M.B. Hart, P.M. Varley and C.D. Warren), Thomas Telford, London, pp. 436-43.

Mortimore, R.N., Roberts, L.D. and Jones, D.L. (1990) Logging of chalk for engineering purposes. In Chalk (eds J.B.Burland, R.N. Mortimore, L.D. Roberts, D.L. Jones and B.O. Corbett). Thomas Telford, London, pp.133-52.

Mortimore, R.N. and Wood, C.J. (1986) The distribution of flint in the English Chalk, with particular reference to the 'Brandon Flint Series' and the high Turonian flint maximum. In The scientific study of flint and chert (eds G. de G. Sieveking and M.B. Hart), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 7-20.

Mortimore, R.N. Wood, C.J., Gallois, R.W. (2001). British Upper Cretaceous Stratigraphy. Geological Conservation Review Series, 23, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, p. 558.

Source of information on many of the Chalk pits in the South Downs and a summary of key palaeontological indices.

Mortimore, R.N., Wood, C.J., Pomerol, B. and Ernst, G. (1998) Dating the phases of the Subhercynian tectonic epoch: Late Cretaceous tectonics and eustatics in the Cretaceous basins of northern Germany compared with the Anglo-Paris Basin. Zentralblatt für Geologie und Paläontologie. Teil 1, 1996 (11/12), 1349- 1401.

Defintion of and evidence for the Subhercynian phases of tectonics that affected the South Downs.

Mortimore, R.N., Newman, T., Royse, K., Scholes, H., Lawrence, U. (2011). Chalk: its stratigraphy, structure and engineering geology in east London and the Thames Gateway. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 44, 419-444.

Application of Sussex geology to London construction projects.

Nichols, D. (1959) Changes in the heart-urchin Micraster interpreted in relation to living forms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 242, 347-437.

Niebuhr, B. (1995) Fazies-Differenzierungen und ihre Steuerungsfaktoren in der höheren Oberkreide von S-Niedersachsen/Sachsen-Anhalt (N-Deutschland). Berliner geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Reihe A, 174, 1-131.

Niebuhr, B., Volkmann, R. and Schönfeld, J. (1997) Das Obercampane polyplocum- Event der Lehrter Westmulde (Oberkreide, N-Deutschland): Bio- /Litho- /Sequenzstratigraphie, Fazies-Entwicklung und Korrelation. Freiberger Forschungsheft, Reihe C, 468, 211-243.

Noda (1975) Succession of Inoceramus in the Upper Cretaceous of southwest Japan. Memoir of the Faculty of Sciences of Kyushu University, Series D (Geology), 23, 22-261.

Noda, M. (1984) Notes on Mytiloides incertus (Cretaceous, Bivalvia) from the Upper Turonian of the Pombets area, central Hokkaido. Transactions and Proceedings of the Palaeontological Society of Japan, N.S., 136, 455-73.

Obradovitch, J. (1994) A Cretaceous time scale. In Evolution of the Western Interior Basin (eds W.G.E. Caldwell and E.G. Kauffman), Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 39, pp. 379-96.

Odin, G.S. (1996) Definition of a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point for the Campanian/Maastrichtian boundary. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 66-supp., pp. 111-7.

Owen, E.F. (1962) The Brachiopod genus Cyclothyris. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Geology), 7, 39-63.

Owen, E.F. (1968) A further study of some Cretaceous rhynchonelloid brachiopods. Bulletin of the Indian Geologists Association, 1, 17-32.

Owen, E.F. (1970) A revision of the brachiopod subfamily Kingeninae Elliott. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Geology), 19, 27-83.

Owen, E.F. (1977) Evolutionary trends in some Mesozoic Terebatellaceae. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Geology), 28, 208-53.

Owen, E.F. (1988) Cenomanian brachiopods from the Lower Chalk of Britain and northern Europe. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Geology), 44.

Owen, E.F. and Smith, A.B. (1987) Fossils of the Chalk. Palaeontological Association Field Guides, 2, The Palaeontological Association, London.

Owen, H.G. (1995) The upper part of the Carstone and the Hunstanton Red Chalk (Albian) of the Hunstanton Cliff, Norfolk. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 106, 171-81.

Parkinson, J. (1819) Remarks on the Fossils collected by Mr. William Phillips, near Dover and Folkstone. Transactions of the Geological Society, 5, 52-9.

Paul, C.R.C., Mitchell, S.F, Marshall, J.D., Leary, P.N., Gale, A.S., Duane, A.M. and Ditchfield, P.W. (1994) Palaeoceanographic events in the Middle Cenomanian of Northwest Europe. Cretaceous Research, 15, 707-38.

Paul, C.R.C., Mitchell, S.F., Vaziri, M.R., Gorostidi, A. and Marshall, J.D. (1999) The Cenomanian - Turonian boundary at Eastbourne (Sussex, UK): a proposed European reference section. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 150, 83-121.

Penning, W.H. and Jukes-Browne, A.J. (1881) Geology of the Neighbourhood of Cambridge. Memoir of the Geological Survey (England and Wales), HMSO, London.

The paper that defined the Melbourn Rock

Pettitt, N.E. (1949) A monograph on the Rhynchonellidae of the British Chalk. I. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London, 26 pp.

Pettitt, N.E. (1954) A monograph on the Rhynchonellidae of the British Chalk. II. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London, pp. 27-52.

Phillips, W. (1818) A selection of facts from the best authorities arranged so as to form an outline of the geology of England and Wales. London

Phillips, W. (1819) Remarks on the Chalk Cliffs in the neighbourhood of Dover, and on the Blue Marle covering the Green Sand near Folkstone. With an Appendix, containing some Account of the Chalk Cliffs, etc. on the Coast of France opposite to Dover. Transactions of the Geological Society, 5, 16-47.

Pomerol, B. (1983) Geochemistry of the Late Cenomanian - Early Turonian Chalks of the Paris Basin: Managanese and Carbon Isotopes in Carbonates as Paleooceanographic Indicators. Cretaceous Research, 4, 85-93.

Pomerol, B., Bailey, H.W., Monciardini, C. and Mortimore, R.N. (1987) Lithostratigraphy and Biostratigraphy of the Lewes and Seaford Chalks: A Link across the Anglo-Paris Basin at the Turonian - Senonian boundary. Cretaceous Research, 8, 289-304.

Pomerol, B. and Mortimore, R.N. (1993) Lithostratigraphy and correlation of the Cenomanian - Turonian boundary sequence. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 28, 59-78.

Pratt, L.M., Force, E.R. and Pomerol, B. (1991) Coupled manganese and carbon- isotopic events in marine carbonates at the Cenomanian - Turonian boundary. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 61, 370-83.

Rasmussen, H.W. (1961) A monograph on the Cretaceous Crinoidea. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, Biologiske Skrifter, 12, 1-248.

Illustrations of the range of species of Bougueticrinus, Uintacrinus and Marsupites vital for correlation in the Chalk.

Rawson, P.F., Curry, D., Dilley, F.C., Hancock, J.M., Kennedy, W.J., Neale, J.W., Wood, C.J. and Worssam, B.C. (1978) A correlation of Cretaceous rocks in the British Isles. Geological Society, London, Special Report No. 9.

Rawson, P.F., Dhondt, A.V., Hancock, J.M. and Kennedy, W.J. (1996) Proceedings “Second International Symposium on Cretaceous Stage Boundaries” Brussels 8-16 September 1995. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 66-supplement..

Rawson, P.F., Allen, P. and Gale, A.S. (2001) The Chalk Group – a revised lithostratigraphy. Geoscientist, 11, 21.

The outcome of the UK’s Stratigraphic Commission recognising that the member divisions defined by Mortimore (1986), Mortimore and Pomerol (1994) and Bristow Mortimore and Wood (1997) should be considered formations on the geological maps of southern England.

Reid, C. (1897) The Geology of the Country around Bognor. Memoirs of the Geological Survey (England and Wales), HMSO, London.

Reid, C. (1898) The Geology of the Country around Eastbourne. Memoirs of the Geological Survey (England and Wales), HMSO, London.

Reid, C. with contributions from G.W Lamplugh and A.J Jukes-Browne. (1903) The Geology of the Country near Chichester. Memoirs of the Geological Survey (England and Wales), HMSO, London.

Reid, R.E.H. (1958) Remarks on the Upper Cretaceous Hexactinellida of County Antrim (Part 2). The Irish Naturalists’ Journal, 12, 263-8.

Reid, R.E.H. (1962) Sponges and the Chalk Rock. Geological Magazine, 99, 273-8.

Reid, R.E.H. (1968) Hexactinellid faunas in the Chalk of England and Ireland. Geological Magazine, 105, 15-22.

Reid, R.E.H. (1973) The Chalk Sea. The Irish Naturalists’ Journal, 17, 357-75.

Reid, R.E.H. (1976) Late Cretaceous climatic trends, faunas and hydrography in Britain and Ireland. Geological Magazine, 113, 115-28.

Reid is one of the very few researchers to work on the fossil sponges that are common in the Chalk

Robaszynski, F., Gale, A.S., Juignet, P., Amédro, F. and Hardenbol, J. (1998) Sequence stratigraphy in the Upper Cretaceous Series of the Anglo-Paris Basin: exemplified by the Cenomanian Stage. In Mesozoic and Cenozoic Sequence Stratigraphy of European Basins (eds J. Hardenbol, J. Thierry, M.B. Farley, Th. Jaquin, P.-C. de Graciansky and P.R. Vail), SEPM Special Publication No. 60, pp. 363-86.  

Robaszynski, F., Pomerol, B., Masure, M., Bellier, J-P., Deconink, J-F. 2005. Stratigraphy and stage boundaries in reference sections of the Upper Cretaceous Chalk in the east of the Paris Basin: the “Craie 700” Provins boreholes. Cretaceous Research, 26, 157-169.

Illustrates the Sussex Downs marker beds in boreholes in the Chalk beneath the Brie in the eastern Paris Basin.

Rowe, A.W. (1899) An analysis of the genus Micraster, as determined by rigorous zonal collecting from the Zone of Rhynchonella cuvieri to that of Micraster coranguinum. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 55, 494-547.

The first biometric study in evolutionary palaeontology using the Chalk echinoid genus Micraster.

Rowe, A.W. (1900) The Zones of the White Chalk of the English Coast. I.-Kent and

Sussex. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 16, 289-368.

Sahni, M.R. (1929) A monograph of the Terebratulidae of the British Chalk. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London, 62 pp.

Schlanger, S.O. and Jenkyns, H.C. (1976) Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events: causes and consequences. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 55, 179-84.

Scholle, P.A. (1974) Diagenesis of Upper Cretaceous chalks from England, Northern Ireland and the North Sea. In Pelagic Sediments: on Land and under the Sea (eds K.J. Hsü and H.C. Jenkyns), Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists No. 1, pp. 177-210.

Schönfeld, J.and Schulz, M.-G. (coord.) (1996) New results on biostratigraphy, palaeomagnetism, geochemistry and correlation from the standard section for the Upper Cretaceous white chalk of northern Germany (Lägerdorf – Kronsmoor - Hemmoor). Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch- Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg, 77, 545-75.

Schulz, M.-G. (1982) Morphometrisch-variationsstatistische Untersuchungen zur Phylogenie der Belemniten-Gattung Belemnella im Untermaastricht NW- Europas. Geologisches Jahrbuch, Reihe A 47, 3-157

Schmid, F. (1953) Schlüsselprofile der Oberen Kreide NW-Deutschlands. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 27, 234-5.

Schmid, F. (1959) Biostratigraphie du Campanien-Maastrichtien du N E de la Belgique sur la base des Belemnites. Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique, 82, 235-56.

Seeley, H.G. (1869) Index to the Fossil Remains of Aves, Ornithosauria, and Reptilia, from the Secondary System of Strata aranged in the Woodwardian Museum of the University of Cambridge. With a Prefatory Note by the Rev. Prof. A. Sedgwick, Deighton, Bell, and Co., Cambridge; Bell and Daldy, London.

Seitz, O. (1934) Die Variabilität des Inoceramus labiatus v. Schloth. Jahrbuch der Preußischen Geologischen Landesamt für 1934, 55, 429-74.

Seitz, O. (1965) Die Inoceramen des Santon und Unter-Campan von Nordwestdeutschland. II Teil. (Biometrie, Dimorphismus und Stratigraphie der Untergattung Sphenoceramus J. Böhm). Beihefte zum Geologischen Jahrbuch, 69, 194 pp.

Seitz, O. (1967) Die Inoceramen des Santon und Unter-Campan von Nordwestdeutschland. III Teil. Taxonomie und Stratigraphie der Untergattungen Endocostea, Haenleinia, Platyceramus, Cladoceramus, Selenoceramus und Cordiceramus mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Parasitismus bei diesen Untergattungen. Beihefte zum Geologischen Jahrbuch, 75, 171 pp.

Sharpe, D. (1853 - 57) Description of the Fossil Remains of Mollusca found in the Chalk of England. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London, 68 pp.

Skelton, P., 2003. The Cretaceous World. The Open University. Cambridge University Press. 360 pp.

Smith, A.B., Paul, C.R.C., Gale, A.S. and Donovan, S.K. (1988) Cenomanian and Lower Turonian echinoderms from Wilmington, south-east Devon, England. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Geology), 42, 245 pp.

Smith, A.G. and Briden, J.C. (1977) Mesozoic and Cenozoic Paleocontinental Maps, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Smith, A.J. and Curry, D. (1975) The structure and geological evolution of the English Channel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A 279, 3-20.

Smith, W. (1815a) Geological Map of England and Wales, J. Cary, London.

Smith, W. (1815b) A memoir to the map delineation of the strata of England and Wales, with part of Scotland, J. Cary, London.

Sorby, H.C. (1861) On the organic origin of the so-called ‘Crystalloids’ of the Chalk. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 3, 45, vol. VIII, 193-200.

Sorby, H.C. (1879) On the Structure and Origin of Limestones. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London, 35, 56-95.

Sornay, J. (1966) Ideées actuelles sur les inocérames d’après divers travaux récents. Annales de Paléontologie (Invértébres), 52, 57-92.

Spath, L.F. (1926) On New Ammonites from the English Chalk. Geological Magazine, 63, 77-83.

Spath, L.F. (1943) A Monograph of the Ammonoidea of the Gault, part 16, Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London, pp. 748-50.

Stokes, R.B. (1975) Royaumes et provinces faunistiques du Crétacé établis sur la base d’une étude systématique du genre Micraster. Memoire du Museum national d’Histoire naturelle, C, 31, 94 pp.

Stokes, R.B. (1977) The echinoids Micraster and Epiaster from the Turonian and Senonian chalk of England. Palaeontology, 20, 805-21.

Strahan, A. (1896) On a phosphatic chalk with Holaster planus at Lewes. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 52, 463-473.

Swiecicki, A. (1980) A Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of the Campanian and Maastrichtian Chalks of the United Kingdom. Unpublished CNAA PhD thesis, Plymouth Polytechnic.

Tröger, K.-A. (1967) Zur Paläontologie, Biostratigraphie und faziellen Ausbildung der unteren Oberkreide (Cenoman bis Turon). Teil I: Paläontologie und Biostratigraphie der Inoceramen des Cenomans bis Turons. Abhandlungen des Staatlichen Museums fur Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, 12, 13- 208.

Tröger, K.-A. (1989) Problems of Upper Cretaceous Inoceramid Biostratigraphy in Europe and Western Asia. In Cretaceous of the Western Tethys, Proceedings 3rd International Cretaceous Symposium, Tübingen, 1987. (ed J. Wiedmann), Schweizerbart; Stuttgart, pp. 911-30.

Tröger, K.-A. (1998) Remarks concerning morphometric parameters, biostratigraphy and palaeobiogeography of Turonian inoceramids (Bivalvia) in Europe. Zentralblatt für Geologie und Paläontologie. Teil 1, 1996 (11/12), 1489-99.

Tröger, K.-A. and Kennedy, W.J. (1996) The Cenomanian stage. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 66- supplement., 57-68.

Vail, P.R. and Mitchum, R.M. Jr. (1977a) Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea-level. Part 1. Overview. In Seismic Stratigraphy - Application to Hydrocarbon Exploration (ed C.E. Peyton), American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 26, pp. 51-2.

Vail, P.R., Mitchum R.M. Jr. and Thompson, S., III. (1977b) Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea-level. Part 3. Relative changes of sea-level from coastal onlap. In Seismic Stratigraphy - Application to Hydrocarbon Exploration (ed C.E.Peyton), American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 26, pp. 63-81.

Vail, P.R., Mitchum R.M. Jr. and Thompson, S., III. (1977b) Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea-level. Part 4. Global cycles of relative changes in sea-level. In Seismic Stratigraphy - Application to Hydrocarbon Exploration (ed C.E. Peyton). American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 26, pp. 83-97.

Vail et al papers like the Haq et al and Hancock papers cited above had criteria for recognising global sea-level changes. Differences exist in the interpretation of the timing and extent of sea-level fluctuations between all the author teams.

Voigt, S. and Hilbrecht, H. (1997) Late Cretaceous carbon isotope stratigraphy in Europe: Correlation and relations with sea level and sediment stability. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 134, 39-59.

Voigt, S. and Wiese, F. (1997) Evidence for Late Cretaceous (Late Turonian) climate cooling from oxygen-isotope variations and palaeobiogeographic changes in Western and Central Europe. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 157, 737-57.

Walaszczyk, I. (1997) Biostratigraphie und Inoceramen des oberen Unter-Campan und unteren Ober-Campan Norddeutschlands. Geologie und Paläontologie in Westfalen, 49, 111 pp.

Walaszczyk, I. and Wood, C.J. (1999a) Inoceramid record and biostratigraphy across the Turonian/Coniacian boundary & Report on the Second Inoceramid Workshop, Freiberg 1966. Acta Geologica Polonica, 48 (4) (Special Volume), I-IV.

Walaszczyk, I. and Wood, C.J. (1999b) Inoceramids and biostratigraphy at the Turonian/Coniacian boundary; based on the Salzgitter-Salder Quarry, Lower Saxony, Germany and the Slupia Nadbrzezna section, Central Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica, 48 (4) (Special Volume), 395-434.

Walaszczyk, I. and Wood, C.J. (1999c) Inoceramid stratigraphy. In: The Upper Cretaceous succession (Cenomanian - Santonian) of the Staffhorst Shaft, Lower Saxony, northern Germany: integrated biostratigraphic, lithostratigraphic and downhole geophysical log data (B. Niebuhr, R. Baldschuhn, G. Ernst, I. Walaszczyk, W. Weissand C.J. Wood). Acta Geologica Polonica, 49, pp.184-91.  

Walaszczyk’s papers are vital to identification and stratigraphy of the fossil inoceramid bivalves present in the Chalk.

Westermann, G.E.G. (1990) New developments in ecology of Jurassic – Cretaceous ammonoids. In Fossili, Evoluzione, Ambiente (eds G. Palling et al.), Atti II convegno internationale Pergola, 1987, pp. 459-78.

Whitaker W. (1872) The Geology of the London Basin. Part 1 The Chalk and the Eocene Beds of the Southern and Western Tracts. Memoirs of the Geological Survey (England and Wales), HMSO, London.

Whitaker, W. (1889) The Geology of London and of Part of the Thames Valley.(Explanation of sheeets 1, 2 and 7). 2 volumes. Memoirs of the Geological Survey (England and Wales), HMSO, London.

Whitaker, A. (ed) (1985) Atlas of onshore sedimentary basins in England and Wales: Post-Carboniferous Tectonics and Stratigraphy, Blackie, Glasgow.

White, H.G.O. (1924) The Geology of the Country near Brighton and Worthing. Memoirs of the Geological Survey (England and Wales), HMSO, London.

White, H.G.O. (1926) The Geology of the Country near Lewes. Memoirs of the Geological Survey (England and Wales), HMSO, London.

Wiedmann, J. (1996) New Developments and perspectives in Cretaceous stratigraphy. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg, 77, 13-38.

Wiese, F. (1997) Das Turon und Unter-Coniac im Nordkantabrischen Becken (Provinz Kantabrien, Nordspanien): Faziesentwicklung, Bio-, Event- und Sequenzstratigraphie. Berliner geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Reihe E, 24, I-VIII, 131 pp.

Wiese, F. (1999) Stable isotope data (δ13C, δ18O) from the Middle and Upper Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) of Liencres (Cantabria, northern Spain) with a comparison to northern Germany (Söhlde & Salzgitter Salder). Newsletters on Stratigraphy, 37, 37-62.

Wiese, F. and Kröger, B. (1998) Evidence for a shallowing event in the Upper Turonian (Cretaceous) Mytiloides scupini Zone of northern Germany. Acta Geologica Polonica, 48, 265-84.

Wiese, F. and Wilmsen, M. (1999) Sequence Stratigraphy in the Cenomanian to Campanian of the North Cantabrian Basin (Cantabria, N-Spain). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen, 212, 131-73.

Wiest, J. (1852) In The Fossil Brachiopods Vol. 1. Part 2, No. 1. Cretaceous (T. Davidson). Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London, p. 114.

Wilkinson, I.P. (1988) Ostracods across the Albian - Cenomanian Boundary in Cambridgeshire and Western Suffolk, Eastern England. In Evolutionary Biology on Ostracoda. Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Ostracoda (eds T. Hanai, N. Ikeya and K. Ishizaki), Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo, pp. 1229-44

Wilson, V., Welch, F.B.A., Robbie, J.A. and Green, G.W. (1958) Geology of the country around Bridport and Yeovil. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, Sheets 327 and 312 (England and Wales), HMSO, London.

Wood, C.J., Batten, D.J., Mortimore, R.N. and Wray, D.S. (1997) The stratigraphy and correlation of the Cenomanian - Turonian boundary interval succession in Lincolnshire, northern England. Freiberger Forschungsheft, Reihe C, 468, 333-46, Freiberg.

Wood, C.J. and Ernst, G. (1998) Cenomanian - Turonian of Wunstorf. In Key localities of the northwest European Cretaceous. (eds J. Mutterlose, A. Bornemann, S. Rauer, C. Spaeth and C.J.Wood), Bochumer Geologische und Geotechnische Arbeiten, 48, 62-73.

Wood, C.J., Ernst, G. and Rasemann, G. (1984) The Turonian-Coniacian stage boundary in Lower Saxony (Germany) and adjacent areas: the Salzgitter- Salder Quarry as a proposed international standard section. Bulletin of the geological Society of Denmark, 33, 225-38.

Wood, C.J., Morter, A.A. and Gallois, R.W. (1994) Appendix 1. Upper Cretaceous stratigraphy of the Trunch Borehole (TG 23 SE 8). In Geology of the country around Great Yarmouth (R.S. Arthurton, S.J. Booth, A.N. Morigi, M.A.W. Abbott. and C.J. Wood), Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Sheet 162 (England and Wales), HMSO, London, pp. 105-10.

Wood, C.J. and Mortimore, R.N. (1995) An anomalous Black Band succession (Cenomanian - Turonian boundary interval) at Melton Ross, Lincolnshire, eastern England and its international significance. Berliner geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Reihe E, 16(1), 277-87.

Wood, C.J., Walaszczyk, I., Mortimore, R.N., Woods, M.A., (2004). New observations on the inoceramid biostratigraphy of the higher part of the Upper Turonian and the Turonian – Coniacian boundary transition in Poland Germany and the UK. Acta Geologica Polonica, 54, 541-549.

Woods, H. (1911-1912) A Monograph of the Cretaceous Lamellibranchia of England, Vol. 2, Parts 7 and 8: Inoceramus. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London, pp. 262-340.

Wray, D.S. (1999) Identification and long-range correlation of bentonites in Turonian-Coniacian (Upper Cretaceous) chalks of northwest Europe. Geological Magazine, 136, 361-71.

Wray, D.S. and Gale, A.S. (1993) Geochemical correlation of marl bands in Turonian chalks of the Anglo-Paris Basin. In High Resolution Stratigraphy (eds E.A. Hailwood and R.B. Kidd), Geological Society of London, Special Publication No. 70, pp. 211-26.

Wray, D.S. and Wood, C.J. (1995) Geochemical identification and correlation of tuff layers in Lower Saxony, Germany. Berliner geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Reihe E, 16(1), 215-26.

Wray, D.S. and Wood, C.J. (1998) Distinction between detrital and volcanogenic clay-rich beds in Turonian - Coniacian chalks of eastern England. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 52, 95-105.

Wray, D.S., Wood, C.J., Ernst, G. and Kaplan, U. (1996) Geochemical subdivision and correlation of clay-rich beds in Turonian sediments of northern Germany. Terra Nova, 8, 603-10.

Wright, C.W. (1935) The Chalk Rock Fauna in East Yorkshire. Geological Magazine, 72, 441-42.

Wright, C.W. (1979) The ammonites of the English Chalk Rock (Upper Turonian). Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Geology), 31, 281-332.

Wright, C.W. (1947) Cenomanian, Turonian and Senonian Stages: the Chalk. In The Geology of the Country around Weymouth, Swanage, Corfe and Lulworth (W.J. Arkell). Memoir of the Geological Survey of Great Britain (England and Wales), HMSO, London, pp. 195-214.

Wright, C.W. and Collins, J.S.H. (1972) British Cretaceous Crabs. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London, 114 pp.

Wright, C.W and Kennedy, W.J. (1981) The Ammonoidea of the Plenus Marls and the Middle Chalk. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London.

Wright, C.W. and Kennedy, W.J. (1984) The Ammonoidea of the Lower Chalk. Part 1. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London.

Wright, C.W. and Kennedy, W.J. (1987) The Ammonoidea of the Lower Chalk. Part 2. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London.

Wright, C. W. and Kennedy, W. J. (1996) The Ammonoidea of the Lower Chalk. Part 5. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London.

Wright, C.W., Kennedy, W.J. and Hancock, J.M. (1984) Introduction. In The Ammonoidea of the Lower Chalk. Part I. (C.W. Wright and W.J. Kennedy). Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London, pp. 1-18.

Wright, C.W. and Wright, E.V. (1949) The Cretaceous Ammonite Genera Discohoplites Spath and Hyphoplites Spath. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, 104, 477-97.

Young, B. and Lake, R.D. (1988) Geology of the country around Brighton and Worthing. Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Sheets 318 and 333 (England and Wales), HMSO, London..

Young, B. and Monkhouse, R.A. (1980) The Geology and Hydrogeology of the Lower Greensand of the Sompting Borehole, West Sussex. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 91, 307-13

Young, J.R., Bergen, J.A., Bown, P.R., Burnett, J.A., Fiorentino, A., Jordan, R.W., Kleijne, A., Niel, B.E. van, Romein, A.J.T. and von Salis, K. (1997) Guidelines for coccolith and nannofossil terminology. Palaeontology, 40, 875-912.

 

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